The Beginnings of Mössbauer Spectroscopy in Poland
Andrzej Z. Hrynkiewicz
During my work at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1958-1960) I had the opportunity to listen to many lectures delivered at MIT or at Harvard University. I was very much impressed by the talk of R.V. Pound on the recoilless emission and absorption of gamma-rays discovered at that time by Rudolf Mössbauer (1958). Professor Pound reported the application of that effect to the measurement of the gravitational energy shift of photons falling down from the 25 m tower of Harvard University. It became obvious to me that the Mössbauer effect had large perspectives and very interesting applications. Being interested in hyperfine interaction studies, I realized that the Mössbauer isotopes are excellent probes for an investigation of magnetic fields and electric fields gradient in condensed matter.
In 1960 I returned to Cracow, having already in my mind a project of a simple Mössbauer spectrometer. Together with two of my graduate students, Dominik Kulgawczuk and Henryk Lizurej, we immediately started to realize the project at the Institute of Physics of Jagiellonian University . It was good luck that a new U-120 cyclotron, bought in the Soviet Union, had already been put into operation in the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow. It was providing a beam of 12 MeV deuterons, just appropriate to produce the 57Co source in the 57Fe (d.n) reaction . At that time we were one of a few Mössbauer laboratories in Europe having approach to the 14 keV 57Fe transition, in our own sources of 57Co which could be introduced into different materials. We built ourselves the single channel analyzers of gamma-rays. A uniform motion in two opposite directions of the absorber was provided by a rotating cam of very simple design. The uniformity of the cam rotation was checked and its frequency measured by a stroboscopic method. The Mössbauer spectra were taken point-by-point for different velocities of the absorber motion. To obtain fair statistics of the counting rates, the experiments lasted many hours and needed constant watching and current adjusting of the whole equipment.
I was very proud showing our first spectra of the Zeeman splitting in iron to Professor Martin Deutch, my supervisor from MIT, when we met in 1961 at a conference in Copenhagen, three years after the Mössbauer publication. The parameters of our spectra agreed within one percent with those reported by other authors.
Our Laboratory was growing fast. New graduate students Józef Bara, Krzysztof Tomala, and Jerzy Sawicki joined us. In the Institute of Nuclear Physics the second Mössbauer spectrometer with an electromagnetically driven source was put into operation. It was already equipped with the Intertechnique multichannel analyzer bought due to a special grant obtained from the Atomic Energy Authority in Warsaw. The first results of the Mössbauer spectroscopy experiments obtained in our Laboratory published in 1962-1966 are presented in the references list [4-14]. It is worthwhile to mention that we started our first investigations of the geological samples  in collaboration with the Cracow Academy of Mining and Metallurgy (J. Kubisz).
In 1975 we organized in Cracow the International Conference on the Mössbauer Effect and Its Applications. It was the first meeting ground of the "eastern" and "western" Mössbauer communities, which had before been separate conferences.
Mössbauer spectroscopy in Poland started in Cracow in Spring 1961. In the following years other laboratories in various Polish scientific centers were created and now their number exceeds 30. The Mössbauer physicists present their newest works during "All-Polish Seminars on Mössbauer Spectroscopy" held in different places in Poland.
- A. Z. Hrynkiewicz. "Early history of hyperfine interaction studies," in Proceedings of the XXXVIII Zakopane School of Physics, Condensed Matter Studies with Nuclear Methods, May 14-19, 2003, p. 17 (2003).
- J. Bara, A. Z. Hrynkiewicz, D. S. Kulgawczuk and H. Lizurej. "Apparatus for the investigation of the Mössbauer spectra at room temperature," Nukleonika 7, 135 (1962).
- J. Bara, A. Z. Hrynkiewicz and I. Stronski. "Die Herstellung von tragerfreien 57Co-Quellen zur Untersuchung des Mössbauer-Effektes," Kernenergie 7, 317 (1964).
- A. Z. Hrynkiewicz and D. Kulgawczuk. "The fine structure of Mössbauer spectra in mineral compounds of iron," in Proc. Conf. Mössbauer Effect, Dubna, 1962, p.18 (1962).
- A. Z. Hrynkiewicz, H. Lizurej, J. Sawicki and T. Senkowski. "Investigation of complex iron compounds by means of the Mössbauer effect," in Proc. Conf. Mössbauer Effect, Dubna, 1962, p. 21 (1962).
- I. Dézsi*), A. Z. Hrynkiewicz and D. Kulgawczuk. "Zeeman splitting of the 14.4 keV gamma line of 57Fe in CoFe2O4 investigated by the Mössbauer effect," Acta Phys. Pol. 24, 283 (1963). *) István Dézsi visitor from the Central Research Institute of Physics in Budapest
- A. Z. Hrynkiewicz and D. Kulgawczuk. "Hyperfine structure of the 14.4 keV gamma line of 57Fe in some iron oxy-hydroxides investigated with the Mössbauer effect," Acta Phys. Pol. 24, 686 (1963).
- A. Z. Hrynkiewicz, H. Lizurej, J. Sawicki and T. Senkowski. "Application of the Mössbauer effect for investigation of crystaline iron complex compound," in Theory and Structure of Complex Compounds, Pergamon Press, Oxford/WNT, Warszawa, p. 409 (1963).
- A. Z. Hrynkiewicz, D. Kulgawczuk and K. Tomala. "Temperature dependence of the effective magnetic fields in spinel type ferrites studied by the Mössbauer effect," Acta Phys. Pol. 28, 423 (1965).
- A. Z. Hrynkiewicz, J. Kubisz and D. Kulgawczuk. "Quadrupole splitting of the 14.4 keV gamma line of 57Fe in iron sulphates of the jarosite group," J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 27, 2513 (1965).
- A. Z. Hrynkiewicz, D. Kulgawczuk and K. Tomala. "Antiferromagnetism of FeOOH investigated with the Mössbauer effect," Phys. Lett. 17, 93 (1965.)
- J. Bara and A. Z. Hrynkiewicz. "The Mössbauer effect for the impurity atoms of 57Fe," Phys. Stat. Solidi 15, 205 (1966).
- J. Bara, H. U. Cholewa, A. Z. Hrynkiewicz and T. Matlak. "Temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor for 14.4 keV gamma rays of the 57Fe impurity nucleus in Zn, Mo and Sn crystal lattices," Phys. Status Solidi 14, K147 (1966).
- J. Bara, H. U. Hrynkiewicz, A. Z. Hrynkiewicz, M. Karapandzin and T. Matlak. "Magnetic hyperfine structure of the 57Fe impurity nucleus in nonmagnetic materials," Phys. Status Solidi 17, K53 (1966).
Mössbauer Laboratories at the
AGH University of Science and Technology
The history of Mössbauer spectroscopy at the AGH University of Science and Technology (up to 1993 The University of Mining and Metallurgy) goes back to the early 1970s. The first paper published in 1971 was co-authored by K. Krop and presented results based on spectra measured with J. M. Williams in his laboratory in Sheffield. The Laboratory of the Mössbauer Effect was founded under the leadership of K. Krop and was equipped with a NOKIA spectrometer. J. Korecki played a key role in its setting and J. Zukrowski was responsible for the software. The first measurements of the spectra started in 1972/1973 on Fe-Cr samples, and the first paper presenting results derived from these spectra measured in the Laboratory was that by S. M. Dubiel and K. Krop [J. Phys. (Paris) 35, C6-459 (1974)]. S. M. Dubiel was also the first Ph.D. student, who defended his thesis on "Hyperfine interactions in Fe-Cr alloys" in 1974. In those days the Lab had only one spectrometer and only RT spectra could be recorded. In addition to Fe-rich binary alloys, superparamagnetism and, later, rare-earth compounds were the topics. In the late 1970s, a second spectrometer was installed, as well as a cryostat and a furnace, so that 57Fe and 119Sn spectra can be collected over a temperature span of 4 1100 K.
In the course of time, the Mössbauer community at AGH has grown, and now it consists of 10 people who work in three groups (Laboratories).
Group 1 (Laboratory of Mössbauer Effect)
Prof. Karol Krop Full Professor, Group Leader
Dr. Ewa Japa Adjunct
Dr. Janusz Przewoznik Adjunct
Dr. Jan Zukrowski Adjunct
The Laboratory is equipped with four spectrometers, four cryostats, and a furnace. Spectra at the following isotopes can be measured in the lab: 57Fe, 119Sn, 155Gd, 161Dy, and 169Tm. Main research interests include: (1) Fe-based binary alloys, (2) superparamagnetism, (3) magnetic ordering phenomena in intermetallic compounds and hydrides, (4) Laves phases, and (5) RMn2 and HTC compounds. Eleven Ph.D. students have been promoted since the lab was founded in 1972.
Group 2 (Laboratory of Mössbauer Spectroscopy)
Prof. Stanislaw M. Dubiel Full Professor, Group Leader
The Laboratory, founded by S. M. Dubiel in 1990, is equipped with two spectrometers, three cryostats (one with 7.5 T superconducting coil), and a furnace enabling recording spectra at temperatures up to 1100 K. Main areas of interest include: (1) electronic structures of metals and alloys, in particular, those with harmonic modulation (spin- and charge-density waves), (2) crystallographic and magnetic phase transitions, (3) spin-glasses, (4) dynamic and magnetic properties of ferritin, and (5) physical properties and kinetics of formation of the sigma-phase in Fe-based alloys. Two Ph.D. students have completed their theses under supervision of S. M. Dubiel.
Group 3 (Laboratory of Surfaces, Thin Films and Multilayers)
Prof. Jozef Korecki Full Professor, Group Leader
Dr. Tomasz Slezak Adjunct
This Laboratory was founded by J. Korecki in the early 1990s. In addition to UHV 57Fe CEMS, the following methods are used for sample preparation and characterization: MOKE, MBE, LEED, AES, and STM. Research topics comprise: (1) magnetic properties of low dimensional structures, (2) metallic and oxide nanoparticles on single crystalline oxide surfaces, (3) atomic resolution gamma-ray holography with Mössbauer effect, and (4) surface diffusion. Four Ph.D. students have been promoted in this Lab.
Mössbauer spectrocopy has been also used by Prof. Jaroslaw Pszczola and Prof. Marek Przybylski. The experiments of J. Pszczola were mostly done in the laboratory of Prof. Jan Suwalski from Swierk. They are related to hyperfine interactions in intermetallic compounds "rare-earth-transition metal." Prof. Pszczola supervised two Ph.D. students. M. Przybylski cooperated with K. Krop and J. Korecki.
Mössbauer Spectroscopy Groups at
Mössbauer Spectroscopy Group in the Department of Medical Physics
Prof. Dr. Jan Stanek Head of the Group and the Department, Representative of Poland on IBAME
The Mössbauer Laboratory in the Department of Medical Physics continues the tradition of the research group formed in the Department of Nuclear Physics by Jerzy and Barbara Sawicki (presently in Chalk River, Canada). Initially, in the 1970s the group was mainly involved in the development of Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectroscopy (CEMS) and ion implantation studies. The present head of the group, Prof. Dr. Jan Stanek, spent a few years at the University of Marburg in Germany working on many aspects of physical chemistry, in particular on properties of gold and tellurium compounds, minerals, and on structural and electronic transformations induced by high pressure. In 2002 he became the head of the newly-established Department of Medical Physics. This fact stimulated some transformation of the scientific interest towards medical and biochemical topics. Currently, the main research areas of the group include (1) electron and ion transport in biosystems, and (2) hard biocompatible hard coatings on endoprothesis formed by ion techniques. The group applies, beside 57Fe, many other Mössbauer probes, namely 119Sn, 125Te, 129I, 151Eu, and 161Dy.
Mössbauer Spectroscopy Group in the Department of Method of Teaching and Methodology of Physics
Prof. Dr. Antoni Pedziwiatr Head of the Group and the Department
Dr. Bogdan Bogacz Senior Lecturer
Anna Wojciechowska Ph.D. Student
This group was established and run for many years by Prof. Dr. Jozef Bara. After his retirement in 2003, Prof. Dr. Antoni Pedziwiatr became the head of the Department and the leader of the Mössbauer spectroscopy group. Currently the main research areas of the group are (1) studies of spin reorientation phenomena in intermetallic compounds using 57Fe spectroscopy, DSC calorimetry, and magnetometry, (2) studies on methodology of Mössbauer measurement, and (3) developing numerical procedures for simultaneous fitting of the series of complex Mössbauer spectra. The group's main equipment includes a Mössbauer spectrometer, a helium cryostat with Lake Shore temperature controller, a Mössbauer furnace, and computers (pc class). Within the last five years the group has published nine papers. The members of the group are involved in the organization of the International Zakopane School of Physics "Condensed Matter Studies with Nuclear Methods."
Laboratory of Mössbauer Spectroscopy
Institute of Electronic Materials Technology
Prof. Dr. Hab. Michal Kopcewicz Head of the Laboratory
The Laboratory of Mössbauer Spectroscopy at the Institute of Electronic Materials Technology is involved in the following research activity:
- Structure and magnetism of amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys
- Structure and magnetic properties of metallic multilayers revealing the giant magnetoresistance effect (Fe/Cr, Fe/Si, etc.)
- Ion-beam modification of materials (ion implantation, e.g., nitrogen in metallic Fe, boron in Fe, and ion-beam mixing of metallic multilayers, e.g., Fe/Zr, Fe/Ti)
- Formation of amorphous materials by mechanical alloying
- Swift heavy ion irradiation of amorphous alloys
- Investigation of cobaltites and manganites revealing the giant magnetoresistance effect
- Modification of steels by pulsed plasma beams
- Investigation of atmospheric aerosols
Results are published in international journals (e.g., the Journal of Applied Physics, the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, the Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Hyperfine Interactions, etc.) and presented at international conferences.
The Laboratory has two Mössbauer effect spectrometers (for eight independent experiments with the 57Co sources), Mössbauer measurements in transmission geometry and scattering geometry by conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and conversion X-ray Mössbauer spectroscopy (CXMS), a continuous flow cryostat (Oxford Instr. CF-100) for measurements in the temperature range 4.2 300K in transmission geometry, a closed cycle cryostat ARS Displex DMX 20 for measurements in the temperature range 10 300K in transmission geometry, a furnace for measurements in the temperature range 300 1000 K in transmission geometry, rf magnetic field generators for use in the Mössbauer transmission measurements during the rf field exposure, a furnace for sample annealing in the temperature range 300 1200 K in vacuum or in protective atmosphere, and specialized software for Mössbauer spectroscopy (NORMOS program).
Laboratory of Mössbauer Spectroscopy
Faculty of Physics
Warsaw University of Technology
Jolanta Galazka-Friedman, Ph.D. Head
The Laboratory of Mössbauer Spectroscopy at the Warsaw University of Technology was formed in 2000. There are two main topics of interest application of Mössbauer spectroscopy to medicine and to mineralogy.
With regard to medicine, the Laboratory studies (1) the role of iron in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, (2) the role of iron in aging of the human brain, and (3) different properties of iron in different parts of the human brain. These problems are studied in close collaboration with Prof. Erika R. Bauminger from The Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Prof. Andrzej Friedman from the Department of Neurology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland, and Prof. Tadeusz Sarna from the Institute of Molecular Biology, Jagiellonian University in Cracow, Poland. Some important publications in this area of research include:
- J. Galazka-Friedman, E. R. Bauminger, A. Friedman, M. Barcikowska, D. Hechel and I. Nowik. "Iron in parkinsonian and control substantia nigra - a Mössbauer spectroscopy study," Movement Disorders 11, 8-16 (1996).
- J. Galazka-Friedman and A. Friedman. "Controversies about iron in parkinsonian and control substantia nigra," Acta Neurobiol. Exp. 57, 210-225 (1997).
- J. Galazka-Friedman, E. R. Bauminger and A. Friedman. "Iron in Parkinson’s disease revisited," Hyperfine Interactions 141/142, 267-271 (2002).
- J. Galazka-Friedman, E. R. Bauminger, D. Koziorowski and A. Friedman. "Mössbauer spectroscopy and ELISA studies reveal differences between Parkinson's disease and control substantia nigra," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1688, 130-136 (2004).
With regard to mineralogy, the Laboratory has the following areas of research: (1) investigation of extraterrestrial samples; and (2) application of Mössbauer spectroscopy to geology. These problems are studied in close collaboration with Prof. Erika R. Bauminger from The Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Dr. Sue Forder from Hallam Sheffield University, UK, Dr. Phil Bland from Imperial College, London, UK, and Prof. Nonna Bakun-Czubarow from the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw. Important publications in this area include:
- J. M. Kudsen, S. Mørup and J. Galazka-Friedman. "Mössbauer spectroscopy and the iron on Mars," Hyperfine Interactions 57, 2231-2235 (1990).
- J. Galazka-Friedman, A. Kotlicki, A. Slawska-Waniewska and A. Witek. "Martian Mössbauer spectrometer," in Environmental Model of Mars, K. Szegoe (ed), Pergamon Press: Oxford, UK, 2, 129-132 (1991).
- J. Galazka-Friedman, E. R. Bauminger and N. Bakun-Czubarow. "Determination of iron oxidation state in omphacites applied to geothermometry of Sudetic eclogites," Hyperfine Interactions 112, 223-226 (1997).
- J. Galazka-Friedman, E. R. Bauminger, I. Nowik, N. Bakun-Czubarow, M. Stepniewski, J. Siemiatkowski. "Comparative Mössbauer studies of the Baszkówka ordinary chondrite and some other meteorites," Geol. Quart. 45, 319-326 (2001).
- S. D. Forder, P. A. Bland, J. Galazka-Friedman, M. Urbanski, Z. Gontarz, M. Milczarek, N. Bakun-Czubarow. "A Mössbauer study of meteorites a possible criterion to identify meteorites from the same parent body?" Hyperfine Interactions (C) 5, 405-8 (2002).
- R. Szczypiorski, K. Szlachta, A. Ludwig, W. Tlaczala, J. Galazka-Friedman. "Zaklodzie the most recent Polish meteorite; Mössbauer studies," in Proceedings of the International Conference Condensed Matter Studies with Nuclear Methods, E. A. Görlich, K. Królas, A. T. Pedziwiatr (eds.), Kraków, 2003, pp 245-248.
Mössbauer Spectroscopy at the
University of Bialystok
The Mössbauer Spectroscopy Group at the University of Bialystok was created in 1985. It is one of four laboratories forming the Solid State Physics Division (Head: Professor Ludwik Dobrzynski). The group consists of:
Prof. Ludwik Dobrzynski
All Mössbauer spectrometers are based on 57Fe. In 1995, a source of circularly polarized resonance monochromatic radiation was constructed, to the best of our knowledge the only device of this type in the world. Sensitivity of circularly polarized radiation to the sign of the hyperfine magnetic field enables one to investigate spatial distribution of magnetic moments and supplement the information usually given by magnetic neutron scattering only. Construction of this sophisticated apparatus was awarded by the Polish Ministry of Education in 2001.
The group is involved in studies of the nature of magnetism, mainly 3d alloys (e.g., Fe3Si, Fe3Al, Pt3Fe) with iron substituted by various elements, Invar alloys, and generally systems with competing interactions. The studies are carried out in the temperature range 12 K RT and in the external magnetic fields up to 1.3 T.
The group has the following experimental abilities: conventional Mössbauer measurements using 57Co source in the temperature range 13K 300K, measurements in external magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to the gamma ray direction, and Mössbauer measurements with circularly polarized radiation.
Mössbauer Spectroscopy Group
Czestochowa University of Technology
The Mössbauer Spectroscopy Group is a part of the Institute of Physics at Czestochowa University of Technology. It consists of 13 persons:
Prof. Józef Zbroszczyk Head of Group
Mössbauer spectroscopy is one of the experimental methods used by the Group. In the laboratory there is a conventional Mössbauer spectrometer that enables measurements of transmission Mössbauer spectra in the temperature range from 80 K up to 1100 K. The Group also has equipment for detection of conversion electrons (CEMS).
The Group applies Mössbauer spectroscopy for quantitative determination of the phase composition of the samples, magnetic structure, and order parameters of the crystalline phases. The materials they are interested in may be divided into three groups: soft magnetic materials (Fe-Si alloys with enhanced silicon concentration, Fe-based amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys in the form of ribbons and bulk amorphous alloys), multicomponent hard magnetic materials, and iron porphyrins. The study of iron porphyrins is focused on the relationship between electronic structure and physical properties.
Mössbauer Spectroscopy Group
Department of Metal Hydrides
Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research
Prof. Henryk Drulis Head of Department and Group
The Laboratory of Mössbauer Spectroscopy is a part of Department of Metal Hydrides of the Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, in Wroclaw. The Group's research interest is currently centered on the magnetic properties of the uranium and rare earth intermetallic compounds with 3d transition elements. The research is mainly focused on iron-containing materials because the Mössbauer effect can be performed only on 57Fe isotopes. This technique helps the group understand the details of hyperfine and magnetic interactions in these compounds, where iron can occupy many magnetically non-equivalent positions. One spectrometer is available for both transmission and backscattering 57Fe Mössbauer measurements. Facilities include variable temperature cryostats and furnaces in the 10-1000 K temperature range.
Institute of Materials Science
Faculty of Computer Science and Materials Science
University of Silesia
Dr. Hab. Janusz E. Frackowiak
In 1971, the Mössbauer Group at the Institute of Materials Science started with constructing a spectrometer with constant acceleration of sources. At this time, the Group has four Mössbauer systems equipped with a low temperature cryostat (77K - 300 K) with stabilization of temperature 1K, a high temperature furnace (300 K - 850 K), and a gas scintillation counter for the CEMS technique (the Group’s own construction).
The Mössbauer investigation is focused on:
- Methodology of Mössbauer spectroscopy (J. E. Frackowiak, J. Kansy, A. Tomczyk)
- Phase transformation in crystalline and amorphous alloys (J. E. Frackowiak)
- Determination of concentration of the point defects in intermetallics by Mössbauer spectroscopy (J. E. Frackowiak, A. Hanc)
- First principle calculation of the hyperfine parameters in metallic systems (isomer shift and magnetic hyperfine field for 57Fe and 119Sn nucleus) (J. E. Frackowiak, J. Deniszczyk, T. Michalecki)
In Silesian University there are the two other groups that apply Mössbauer spectroscopy to the study of magnetic materials (Prof. W. Zarek, Dr. E. Popiel, and Dr. M. Tuszyski in the Institute of Physics) and minerals (Prof. J. Janeczek and Dr. D. Malczewski in the Faculty of Earth Sciences).
Mössbauer Spectroscopy Laboratory
Institute of Atomic Energy
In the early stages of the development of the Mössbauer Spectroscopy Laboratory at the Institute of Atomic Energy [1966-1975], the activity was directed towards the construction of Mössbauer spectrometers for the group's own needs and to fulfill the increasing demand for this type of equipment from research and university institutions in Poland. A few simplified spectrometers were also constructed for industrial use. At the same time cryogenic techniques and cryostat constructions were developed. The Laboratory staff at that time consisted of ten employees, which has been gradually reduced to four staff positions and students at present.
Initially the measurements of 57Fe resonance were carried out, but other resonant nuclei were consecutively introduced, namely 119Sn, 125Te, 151Eu, 121Sb, 61Ni, and 161Dy. The studies of the latter two were made possible due to the existence of accelerators and reactors suitable for the activation of short-life isotopes. In addition to ME studies, neutron and X-ray spectroscopic and diffraction techniques were applied in order to obtain complementary results. Part of the group’s research was devoted to ordered state and spin structure in diluted ferromagnetic oxides, spin canting and spin flipping, atomic order and disorder in alloys, spinodal decomposition in alnico alloys, corrosion, and amorphous alloys mainly for industry. Theoretical and experimental study ordering oscillations in carbon martensite are carried on.
Important scientific achievements were accomplished through collaboration with several research institutions in the fruitful fields doped polymers [Nobel 2000] and fullerites [Nobel 1996]. The group wishes to acknowledge the enormous contribution of coauthors Prof. A. Pron, I. Kulszewicz, and P. Byszewski. In the last years the Laboratory has cooperated intensively with the materials laboratory of Prof. Jaroslaw Pszczola from the AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow (53 common publications, two Ph.D. theses, and many M.Sc. diplomas). In general, the staff of the Mössbauer Spectroscopy Laboratory at Swierk, with coauthors, has published more than 200 scientific papers from which approximately 50% were published in the most prestigious international journals. The group wishes to acknowledge the contributions of former staff members: Prof. J. Piekoszewski (head of the Laboratory from 1966-1977), Prof. S. Ligenza, M. Lukasiak M.Sc., Mrs. K. Kisynska M.Sc., Dr. Z. Kucharski (Ph.D. at IAE Swierk), Eng. R. Mundkowski (at present in USA), Tech. K. Cieloch, Tech. W. Kulesz, Tech. M. Mróz, Tech. J. Ozimkowski (retired) and many diplomants.
The present staff of laboratory includes Prof. Ludwik Dabrowski [chief], Miss Agata Jablonska M.Sc., Prof. Jan Suwalski, Eng. Tomasz Winek, and in cooperation the group of Prof. J. Pszczola [Cracow].
Mössbauer Studies at the
Department of Experimental Physics
Institute of Physics
Lublin University of Technology
Dr. Elzbieta Jartych Head of the Department of Experimental Physics
Dr. Jan Krzysztof Zurawicz Scientific Collaborator
Mössbauer spectroscopy studies at the Lublin University of Technology started in 1987. In the beginning, the group performed investigations of hyperfine interactions in alloys and intermetallic systems of iron with some transition metals. In 1988, the technology of electrodeposition of bulk Fe-based alloys was developed. It was stated that in electrodeposited alloys the phase transitions occurred for concentrations differently as comparable analogous systems obtained by melting; however, hyperfine interactions parameters did not differ significantly form the data for conventionally prepared alloys.
In 1993 the group turned its attention to the mechanically synthesized nanocrystalline and amorphous Fe-based alloys. Analysis of Mössbauer spectra for solid solutions of iron with Al, Ni, W, and Mo was performed on the basis of the local environment model in terms of Warren-Cowley parameters. The main result from the investigations is that impurity atoms are not randomly distributed in the volume of the first and the second co-ordination spheres of 57Fe nuclei and they form clusters.
In 2000, the conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) technique was applied to the study of electrodeposited iron layers with thickness below 100 nm. The influence of the different electrodeposited parameters on the thickness of layers was revealed what manifested in their magnetic anisotropy, as seen by CEMS.
Currently, the continuation of Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of mechanically synthesized binary and ternary alloys is performed, as well as electrodeposited Fe-based thin layers.
Mössbauer Spectroscopy Laboratory
Institute of Experimental Physics
The Mössbauer Spectroscopy Laboratory at the Institute of Experimental Physics of Wroclaw University was initiated by Prof. B. Rozenfeld in the mid-1970s. At present, the permanent staff of the Laboratory consists of three people: Dr. Jan Chojcan, Dr. Andrzej Ostrasz, and Mgr. Beata Brzeska-Michalak (Ph.D. student). The main interest of the group is focused on iron alloys and hydrogenated iron alloys as well as biological materials.
The studies for binary iron-based solid solutions are performed in order to determine some thermodynamic properties. Recently, they have delivered information concerning heat of solution of several 3d elements in iron. Moreover, they have revealed that in thermal equilibrium iron alloys at relatively low temperature (below 1000 K) there are transient distortions (dilatations) of the crystalline lattice, which mean the lifetime is longer than 141 ns the mean lifetime of the first excited state of 57Fe.
The studies of hydrogen-metal systems are focused on the magnetic properties of iron alloys with several transition elements, such as vanadium, zirconium, titanium, and niobium. There are several compounds formed in such alloys that are ferromagnetic, but they completely lose this property upon hydrogenation. Also the reverse situation exists; there are intermetallic compounds which are Pauli-paramagnetic and become ferromagnetic when absorbing hydrogen. Recently, the study of the interplay between hydrogen diffusion and the hyperfine interactions have been carried out to show the sensitivity of the iron probes to the structure of different hydride phases formed in these alloys. They have revealed that the hydrogen-induced isomer shift can be used as a straight measure of the mean number of hydrogen atoms next to the Fe probe captured in the sublattice of non-stoichiometric hydrides.
The main directions of the biomedical application developed by the group in collaboration with the Silesian Oncology Center are considered to obtain physical parameters and information about qualitative and quantitative changes of iron-containing proteins during pathological processes. The group attempted to use Mössbauer spectroscopy and the Prussian blue staining technique for the first time, to identify the tumor tissue. The results allow the group to hope that future progress in these studies may help to apply this method as a high-sensitivity tool to early recognition of the mechanisms responsible for tumor processes.
Mössbauer Spectroscopy Division
Institute of Physics
The Mössbauer Spectroscopy Division at the Pedagogical University is engaged in high temperature emission Mössbauer spectroscopy. The group observes diffusional motions of atoms on a microscopic scale. They are interested in applying synchrotron radiation to study lattice dynamics as well. The Division's current staff consists of Professor Krzysztof Ruebenbauer, Group Leader, and Dr. Artur Blachowski.
The group studies diffusion processes and high temperature behavior of solids by 14.411-keV emission Mössbauer spectroscopy of 57Fe and applies emission spectroscopy to single crystals of insulators and semiconductors. They are looking for new methods enabling one to see diffusion on the microscopic scale in systems that do not contain Mössbauer isotopes. Rayleigh scattering of synchrotron radiation (SR) is a promising method. Studies of the recoilless fraction anisotropy are performed, particularly in the anharmonic regions, applying various techniques such as Rayleigh scattering of the Mössbauer radiation (RSMR) and inelastic resonant scattering of SR. The group’s current research topics include emission Mössbauer spectroscopy in rutile (TiO2) single crystals (evidence for existence of exotic oxidation states of impurities) and anisotropy of the recoilless fraction.
The Division has the following equipment at its disposal:
- MsAa-1 spectrometer equipped with the laser interferometer
- Mössbauer furnace to perform HT emission measurements
- System to prepare thin single crystalline plates at predefined orientations
- Mössbauer source preparation unit
- Medium vacuum and gas flow system
- Ab initio Mössbauer data processing software MOSGRAF
Mössbauer Studies at the
Hyperfine Interaction Laboratory
Institute of Physics
Maria Curie-Sklodowska University
Prof. Mieczyslaw Budzynski Head of the Hyperfine Interaction Laboratory
Mössbauer spectroscopy studies at the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin started in 1985. In the beginning, the group performed investigations of hyperfine interactions in alloys and intermetallic systems of iron with some transition metals.
Currently, the study of quasibinary Laves phase of A1-xA’xFe2 type compounds, where A = Zr, Y and A’ = Ti, Sc are performed in the Laboratory. In these compounds the structural (cubic → hexagonal) and magnetic (ferromagnetic → antiferromagnetic, ferromagnetic → paramagnetic) transitions are observed. The investigations are performed for various ranges of x concentration and different temperatures (from 10K to 1000K).
Since 2001 the group has collaborated with the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. Using two complementary methods, such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and neutron diffraction, allows the researchers to determine the hyperfine coupling constant by comparing the magnitude of the magnetic moments with HMF on the Fe atoms.
In the future the investigation of hyperfine interactions in quasibinary Laves phase compounds under high pressure are being planned.
The Mössbauer Group
Department of Physics
Technical University of Radom
The Mössbauer group has worked in Department of Physics of the Technical University of Radom for about 25 years. It is presently composed of four researchers:
The Group applies Mössbauer spectroscopy based on 57Fe to the following two topics:
- Magnetic phase transitions in the ordered and disordered magnetic materials
- Structure and properties of amorphous and nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials
In 2000, the Group organized the conference OSSM2000 (All-Polish Seminar on Mössbauer Spectroscopy) in Zbozenna.
Mössbauer Research at the
Faculty of Earth Sciences
University of Silesia
Dariusz Malczewski Lecturer
Aleksandra Sitarek Assistant
The group at the Faculty of Earth Sciences is generally interested in Mössbauer spectroscopy of metamict and silicates minerals, minerals physics, and natural radioactivity of rocks and soils. Recently published (and in press) papers in the field of Mössbauer spectroscopy include:
D. Malczewski and J. Janeczek. "Activation energy of annealed metamict gadolinite from 57Fe Mössbauer Spectroscopy," Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 29, 226-232 (2002).
D. Malczewski. "57Fe Mössbauer study of one-hour annealing in argon of radiation damage in metamict gadolinite from Ytterby," Hyperfine Interactions 141/142, 337-343 (2002).
D. Malczewski. "57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction study of gadolinites REE2Fe2+Be2Si2O10 from Lower Silesia (Poland) and Ytterby (Sweden)," Nukleonika 48, S41-S44 (2003).
D. Malczewski. "Structural analysis of radiation damage in Precambrian gadolinite from Ytterby by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction," Materials Science and Engineering (in press) (2004).
D. Malczewski, E. Popiel and A. Sitarek. "57Fe Mössbauer study of stilpnomelane and associated chlorite from Polish granite pegmatites," Nukleonika (in press) (2004).