Regional Groups of Mössbauer Researchers - Russia
Reprinted from the May 2004 edition of the Mössbauer Spectroscopy Newsletter, published as part of Volume 27, Issue 5 of the Mössbauer Effect Reference and Data Journal
Mössbauer Spectroscopy in Russia

Russia has been a long-time contributor to the international Mössbauer community. This issue of the Newsletter features reports from 21 active Mössbauer research laboratories in Russia. The reports appear in descending order of most active Russian institutions, based on the records of the Mössbauer Effect Data Center.

M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University

There are three active research groups at the M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University that contribute to the development of Mössbauer spectroscopy. They are briefly described below.

The Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry Techniques
Department of Chemistry

Names and Titles of Researchers

Head of the Laboratory – Prof. Yu. D. Perfiliev

Leading Scientist – Prof. A. M. Babeshkin

Associate Professor – Dr. L. A. Kulikov

Senior Scientist – Dr. S. K. Dedushenko

Senior Scientist – Dr. D. A. Pankratov

Engineer – V. V. Kovalenko

Engineer – I. A. Gorizontov

Technician – L. N. Mitrofanova

Undergraduate Students – V. A. Syomin, A. A. Chistyakov, S. V. Gromov

L-R: Dr. L. A. Savrov – Visiting Scientist, Dr. A. I. Shamov – Guest, Creator of the Mössbauer spectrometer “Perseus”,
Dr. L. A. Kulikov – Associate Professor, Prof. Yu. D. Perfiliev – Head of the Laboratory, Mr. A. A. Chistyakov – Student,
Miss N. A. Vasilieva – Student, Dr. D. A. Pankratov – Senior Scientist, Dr. S. K. Dedushenko – Senior Scientist

Areas of Research

Mössbauer spectroscopy of iron, cobalt, tin, and tellurium for solution of different chemical problems.

Investigation of higher oxidation states of iron: Obtaining new compounds by means of ordinary chemical approaches, ferrate(VI) in particular, as potential reagents for water and wastewater treatment. Stabilization of unusual oxidation states of transition elements, mainly iron and cobalt, by the matrix stabilization method.

Physicochemical consequences of Auger-ionization of atoms. The subject of study is the processes of high-energy chemistry associated with the creation of electron vacancies in deep shells of the atom. Some Mössbauer genetic pairs of radionuclides are suitable to be used simultaneously as activators and analyzers of these processes. Electronic de-excitation of atoms proceeds via the Auger multiple ionization process. Its chemical consequences depend on localized self-radiolysis, the ability of scavenging the Auger and secondary electrons by the stabilizing dauther atom, photochemical transformation, etc.

Laboratory of Mössbauer Effect Applications in Physics of Solid State
Division of Solid State Physics
Department of Physics

Names and Titles of Researchers

Prof. A. Novakova
Dr. T. Kiseleva
Physicist P. Revokatov
Physicist E. Khval’kovskaya
Engineer E. Hait
Engineer N. Volkova
Technician A. Volodin
Graduate Student D. Golubok
Graduate Student E. Smirnov
Graduate Student Yu. Il’ina

L-R: Dr. T. Kiseleva, Prof. A. Novakova, Dr. O. Agladze, Student V. Denisova, Physicist E. Khval’kovskaya

Areas of Research

  • 57Fe investigations of amorphous and nanosized iron compounds obtained during different metallurgical, chemical, biochemical, and geochemical processes and irradiation effects

The Laboratory of Mössbauer Effect Applications in Physics of Solid State, attached to the Division of Solid State Physics and headed by Prof. Runar Kuzmin, was founded in 1962, and was one of the first Mössbauer laboratories in the Soviet Union. During the first several years, equipment (Mössbauer spectrometers, cryostats, furnaces, high pressure chamber, Mössbauer diffractometer) was elaborate and self-made, and many experimental studies of different alloys and compounds were performed on the Mössbauer isotopes 57Co, 119Sn, 121Sb, and 125Te by Dr. Kuzmin and his collaborators (young scientists and students). Among them were N. Ibraimov, A. Novakova, S. Irkaev, S. Nikitina, A. Opalenko, T. Gendler, and S. Godovikov. Simultaneously, the theoretical and experimental investigations of Mössbauer diffraction and optics were performed by A. Kolpakov, V. Zasimov, M. Andreeva, and E. Ovchinnicova. Later the method of conversion Mössbauer spectroscopy was worked out on the basis of new techniques by A. Novakova and A. Kiselev. Prof. Alla Novakova has headed the experimental investigations in the Laboratory for the past ten years.

Several books on Mössbauer effect problems and educational books for students have been written under the Laboratory's auspices. Post-graduate courses have been held concerning the theory of the Mössbauer effect, experimental investigation methods, the mathematical methods of Mössbauer spectra fitting, and Mössbauer spectroscopy applications in physics, chemistry, and biology. More than 200 students and post-graduate students have performed their diploma and doctoral works during the Laboratory's existence, and 13 scientists have received the Doctor of Sciences degree.

The Laboratory is well equipped with several Mössbauer spectrometers, and can measure Mössbauer spectra in a wide temperature range (10-900 K) and in different geometries of registration. The Lab's technique of resonance electron registration with energy selection and conversion X-ray registration in the same gas flow proportional counter is useful in depth-selective studies of cluster nucleations on the crystal surface, and biologically stimulated corrosion processes. Mössbauer investigations are performed in combination with X-ray diffraction, magnetic measurements, calorimetry, electron microscopy, and EPR. Samples for investigation are received from the Lab's collaborators from the Biological Department of Moscow State University, the Institute of New Chemical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), the Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry of the Siberian Branch RAS, the Institute of Physics of the Earth of the RAS, Russian Nuclear Centers, and the Moscow State Steel and Alloys Institute.

Recent research efforts include investigations of the structural and magnetic state of polymer nanocomposites containing nanosized iron particles (J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 258-259, 354-357, 2003); investigations of carbon nanostructures obtained on Fe-Ni catalyst (Carbon, in press 2004; Russian Surface (3), 70-73, 2004); irradiation effects in amorphous alloy Fe-Ni-Si-B (J. Metastable Nanocryst. Mater. 15, 451-456, 2003); investigations of immiscible iron and indium interactions during mechanical attrition (J. Alloys Compd., in press 2004; Russian Surface (3), 105-109, 2004); and investigation of ferrous iron accumulation in Clamidomonas reinhadtii (Plant Physiol. 131, 1756-1764, 2003).

Mössbauer Spectroscopy of Local Non-Homogeneous Systems
Department of Physics

Names and Titles of Researchers

Group Leader – Prof. V. S. Rusakov
Dr. N. I. Chistyakova
Post-Graduate Student A. B. Baranov
Post-Graduate Student A. A. Kotelnikova
Post-Graduate Student R. V. Kovalchuk
Graduate Student Yu. G. Kupin
Graduate Student I. A. Burkovskii
Student T. V. Gorohova
Student M. V. Volovetskii
Student T. V. Gubaidulina
Student M. A. Pereponova
Student A. V. Shkurenko

L-R: I. A. Burkovsky, Y. G. Kupin, N. I. Chistyakova, V. S. Rusakov,
A. B. Baranov

Areas of Research

  • Local non-homogeneous systems: amorphous systems, thin layers and laminar systems, mineral systems and meteorites
  • Effect: laser and thermal annealing, static pressure, shock waves, deuteration, ion implantation, microbial activity
  • Processes: crystallization, atomic ordering, diffusion, phase formation, spin reorientation, atomic implementation, isomorphic substitution, redox reactions
  • Mössbauer data evaluation

The scientific group "Mössbauer Spectroscopy of Local Non-Homogeneous Systems" was formed in 1991. Since that time, more than 100 articles and two monographs have been published by members of the group, and five Ph.D. dissertations have been defended. The group has conducted collaborative research with the Institute of Energy Problems of Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), the Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, the Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry of the RAS, the Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Mineralogy, Petrology, and Geochemistry of the RAS, the State Research Centre Karpov Institute, the Institute of Microbiology of the RAS, the Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research in Wroclav, Poland, and the Institute of Nuclear Physics NNC in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics
Russian Academy of Sciences

Honorary General Director: Prof. Academician Aleksandr Berlin

There are seven main groups in the N. N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics that contribute to the development of Mössbauer spectroscopy. Those that contributed reports are briefly described below.

Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Nanoclusters and Nanostructures
Gol’danskii Department of Substance Structure

Names and Titles of Researchers

Head of Laboratory – Prof. Dr.Sc. I. P. Suzdalev
Leading Researcher – Dr.Sc. Y. V. Maksimov
Leading Researcher – Dr.Sc. V. N. Buravtsev
Leading Researcher – Dr. A. S. Plachinda
Senior Researcher – Dr. V. K. Imshennik
Senior Researcher – Dr. V. V. Matveev
Researcher – S. V. Novichikhin

Areas of Research

  • Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces
  • Nanoclusters and nanocluster structures
  • Atomic dynamics and magnetism
  • Catalysis and adsorption
  • Rayleigh scattering of Mössbauer radiation
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy

Recent research has focused on magnetic phase transitions in nanosystems and the structure-activity relationships during carbon dioxide reactions proceeding over intermetallic hydrides based on the alloy TiFe0.95Zr0.03Mo0.02.

Laboratory of Biopolymer Dynamics
Gol’danskii Department of Substance Structure

Names and Titles of Researchers

Head of Laboratory – Dr.Sc. Yu. F. Krupyanskii
Senior Researcher – Dr. O. D. Vetrov
Senior Researcher – Dr. M. G. Michailyuk
Senior Researcher – A. N. Moroz
Researcher – S. V. Esin
Researcher – I. Grigor’ev
Diploma Students – O. A. Korotina
Diploma Students – E. A. Okisheva

Areas of Research

  • Biologically inspired physics, biophysics, "protein-like" polymers

The goal of research is the investigation and quantitative description of general principles of the functioning of proteins and "protein-like" polymers, necessary for macromolecule engineering. Towards that end, the group at the Laboratory of Biopolymer Dynamics investigates the structure, dynamics, and folding of proteins and "protein-like" polymers. Specifically, the structure and dynamics of proteins belonging to the different structure families α-helical proteins, β-sheet proteins, α+β proteins, and α/β proteins, as well as membrane and non-membrane proteins – are studied. In addition, the group investigates the fundamentals of folding of "protein-like" polymer macromolecules that should perform specific functions. The main experimental tools are Rayleigh scattering of Mössbauer radiation technique (Esin, Grigor’ev, Vetrov. Korotina, Okisheva), diffuse X-ray scattering (Esin, Grigor’ev, Vetrov. Korotina, Okisheva), molecular dynamics simulations (Mikhailyuk, Moroz, Esin), and Mössbauer spectroscopy (Esin, Grigor’ev, Vetrov. Korotina, Okisheva). Data are treated by computer simulations, including molecular dynamics (Moroz, Mikhailyuk, Esin).

Laboratory of Hyperfine Interactions
Gol’danskii Department of Substance Structure

The Laboratory of Hyperfine Interactions includes two groups. One investigates the structure, dynamics, and physical nature of chemical bonds in liquid crystals (the Main Researcher is Prof. Dr.Sc. V. Rochev). The other investigates high temperature superconductivity with the group from the Department of Kinetics and Catalysis (the Main Researchers are Prof. Dr.Sc. E. F. Makarov and Dr.Sc. L. G. Mamsurova).

Names and Titles of Researchers

Prof. Dr. Sc. V. Rochev
Prof. Dr.Sc. E. F. Makarov
Dr.Sc. L. G. Mamsurova

Areas of Research

  • High temperature superconductivity (HTSC), Mössbauer spectroscopy

The group investigates chemical modification of HTSC, the nature of HTSC, the influence of cations nonequilibrium distributions on local structure HTSC and its superconductivity. For instance, their article "Features of the local structure of fine-grained HTSC YBa2Cu2,985 57Fe0,015Oy" published in Low Temperature Physics 30, 275 (2004), has been selected for the May 1, 2004, issue of the Virtual Journal of Applications of Superconductivity. The Virtual Journal, which is published by the American Institute of Physics and the American Physical Society in cooperation with numerous other societies and publishers, is an edited compilation of links to articles from participating publishers, covering a focused area of frontier research. You can access the Virtual Journal at <>.

Institute of Metal Physics
Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch

The Mössbauer effect was first used in the studies at the Institute of Metal Physics (IMP), Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, in the early 1960s. Dr. E. E. Yurchikov (IMP) was the first in the Ural region to measure a Mössbauer spectrum using an installation with a mechanical drive. The first generation of NGR specialists, who started the works at the IMP in the 1960s-1970s, included Dr. G. Ugodnikov, Dr. I. A. Dubovtsev, Dr. V. A. Tsurin, Prof. E. P. Yelsukov, Dr. N. P. Filippova, Dr. V. A. Shabashov, Dr. V. V. Serikov, and Dr. V. N. Kaigorodov. Today the IMP has several teams that use the NGR method as applied to problems of metal physics. They are briefly described below.

Laboratory of Mechanical Properties

The Laboratory of Mechanical Properties (headed by Prof. V. V. Sagaradze) incorporates a group of researchers working with the Mössbauer spectroscopic method. Among them are:

Names and Titles of Researchers

Group Leader, Senior Researcher – Dr. V. A. Shabashov

Researcher, Information Support – Dr. A. G. Mukoseev

Senior Researcher – Dr. V. M. Koloskov

Researcher – Dr. A. V. Litvinov

Senior Researcher, Guest Specialist – Dr. V. A. Semionkin

L-R: Dr. V. A. Shabashov, Dr. A. V. Litvinov, Dr. A. G. Mukoseev, Prof. V. V. Sagaradze

Areas of Research

  • Research in the field of physics of the phase transformation, creation of high-strength metastable alloys, control of TEC in Fe-Ni invars, mechanically activated formation of the nanocrystalline state, mechanical synthesis of interstitial and substitutional solid solutions, dissolution of intermetallics, carbides, nitrides, oxides during pressure-shear cold deformation.

  • Metastable phase diagrams, structural transitions, atomic redistribution, short-range ordering in systems based on Fe-Ni, Fe-Mn and Fe-Cr alloys, formation and decomposition of intermetallics in Fe-Ni-Ti (Al, Zr) alloys exposed to strong deformation effects or radiation with high-energy electrons and neutrons. Structure of constructional alloys after irradiation in a reactor with a fast-neutron fluence of 1019-5x1022 n/cm2.

The group has developed equipment for NGR observations in situ during high-pressure (up to 25 GPa) shear. The group has Mössbauer SM 2201 (Russia) and WISSEL MS II (Germany) spectrometers at its disposal. A superconducting solenoid type MD 1046 (Oxford, England) is used for temperature and magnetic measurements. Active samples (after neutron irradiation) are analyzed in an NGR spectrometer at Beloyarskaya Atomic Power Plant.

Laboratory of Ferromagnetic Alloys

The Laboratory of Ferromagnetic Alloys (headed by Prof. Alexander S. Ermolenko) includes a Mössbauer group employing:

Names and Titles of Researchers

Senior Researcher – Dr. V. V. Serikov
Senior Researcher – Dr. N. M. Kleinerman

Areas of Research

  • Using NGR and NMR spectroscopic methods, the group analyzes magnetic and structural features of magnetically ordered alloys based, in the main, on Fe and rare-earth elements.

Recent research has included investigation of the structural and magnetic properties of the ternary system MnxFe1-xPdx; studies on the real structure of the intermetallic compounds R2Fe17 (R = Ce, Lu) using neutron powder diffraction, NMR, and NGR methods; investigation of the structure and magnetic properties of the nanocrystalline alloy Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9; investigation of the phase content and homogeneity of the Fe-Cu alloys synthesized by mechanoactivation under pressure; the phase separation in isostructural systems between ordering alloy and intermetallic compound; and hyperfine fields in Ce2Fe15.3M1.7 (M = Fe, Si, Al).

Mössbauer Group
Department of Electronic Properties

The Mössbauer Group at the Department of Electronic Properties (headed by Prof. V. V. Ustinov) includes the following researchers:

Names and Titles of Researchers

Senior Researcher – Dr. V. A. Tsurin
Senior Researcher – Dr. L. N. Romashev
Younger Researcher – V. V. Kononikhina

Areas of Research

  • Analysis of the atomic and magnetic structure of interlayer boundaries in metallic superlattices formed by alternating layers of ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic metals having characteristic thickness of 1-5 nm and possessing a gigantic magnetoresistive effect (for example, in 57Fe/Cr superlattices). Thanks to this effect, the aforementioned new nanosized materials present not only scientific but also a great practical interest. The Mössbauer investigations performed by the group open up perspectives for creation of metallic superlattices with preset magnetic transport properties.

  • Analysis of the local magnetic structure of interfaces in Fe/Cr multilayers and its dependence on layer thickness and growth conditions. Determination of redistribution of metallic cations in nanocrystallic powders of mechanically synthesized magnetites. Investigation of forming atomic short ordering and magnetic properties in mechanically synthesized alloys and powdered connections of Fe with 2p and 3d elements, in order to trace mechanisms responsible for stability and instability of materials in nanocrystalline state.

Physical-Technical Institute
Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch

The new Physical-Technical Institute of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences was established in 1983 in Izhevsk, growing from its origins in the Ekaterinburg Institute of Physics of Metals. There are two main groups in the Institute that contribute to the development of Mössbauer spectroscopy. They are briefly described below.

Non-Equilibrium Metallic System Laboratory

Names and Titles of Researchers

Head of Laboratory – Prof. E. P. Yelsukov
Senior Researcher – Dr. E. V. Voronina
Senior Researcher – Dr. G. A. Dorofeev
Senior Researcher – Dr. G. N. Konygin
Senior Researcher – Dr. L. V. Dobysheva
Senior Researcher – Dr. V. M. Fomin
Researcher – Dr. O. M. Nemtsova
Researcher – Dr. A. L. Ul’yanov
Researcher – Dr. I.V.Povstugar
Head of the Theoretical Physics Laboratory – Prof. A. K. Arzhnikov (Collaborator/Theorist)

L-R: G. A. Dorofeev, A. L. Ul’yanov, G. N. Konygin, L. V. Dobysheva, E. P. Yelsukov, A. K. Arzhnikov, E. V. Voronina, V. M. Fomin, O. M. Nemtsova

Areas of Research

  • Structure-phase transformation in metallic systems during mechanical grinding and alloying

  • Magnetism of non-ordered (nanocrystalline and amorphous) quasi-binary Fe-(Si,C), Fe-(Sn,Si), Fe-(Si,Ge), Fe-(Ge,Sn) alloys and of ordered Fe75-(Si,Ge)25 and Fe-Al alloys

The Laboratory was established on 5 December 1983, and the first Mössbauer spectra was obtained on that day. The Chair of the Laboratory is Prof. E. P. Yelsukov, who was awarded the State Scientific Prize by the Russian Federation in 1993, was named a Merited Scientist of the Udmurst Republic in 1999, and received a Science Foundation grant in 2000. The researchers of the group are graduates of Kazan, Moscow, Ural, and Udmurt State Universities. The staff of the Laboratory consists of 16 people, eight of whom are working in the Mössbauer spectroscopy field. The Laboratory uses X-ray diffraction, magnetic studies, and EXAFS spectroscopy in addition to Mössbauer spectroscopy in its research. Since the formation of the Lab in 1983, about 200 scientific articles have been published by the group, and two Doctor of Sciences and ten Candidate of Science theses have been defended. Currently, the Lab sponsors two participants in the Ph.D. program, and welcomes one student from Udmurt State University who is involved in research.

The Laboratory has conducted collaborative research with the Institute of Physics of Metals (RAS, Ural Branch, Ekaterinburg), the Institute of Chemistry of Solids in Mechanochemistry (RAS, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk), and the Research Institute of Nuclear Physics at Moscow State University (Moscow).

Laboratory of Condensed Matter Theory

Names and Titles of Researchers

A. K. Arzhnikov
L. V. Dobysheva

Areas of Research

  • First-principles calculations
  • Magnetism
  • Disordered systems
  • Multilayers

The group investigates formation of the hyperfine fields in alloys of Fe with sp-elements such as Si, Sn, and Al with the help of first-principles calculations of the valence, core, and orbital contributions to the hyperfine field. The effect of the environment of the Fe nuclei is studied. A possibility of usage of the hyperfine field at Sn nuclei in multilayers Fe/Cr for determination of the Cr magnetic state is studied last time. The group works in a close collaboration with an experimental Mössbauer laboratory led by Prof. Ye. P. Yelsukov.

St. Petersburg State University
St. Petersburg

There are two main groups at St. Petersburg State University that contribute to the development of Mössbauer spectroscopy. They are briefly described below.

Mössbauer Laboratory
Department of Chemistry

Names and Titles of Researchers

Prof. Dr.Sc. V. G. Semenov
Prof. Dr.Sc. V. M. Uzdin
Post-Graduate Student – V.V. Panchuk
Diploma Student – A.Yu. Beljaev
Student – V.S. Volodin

Areas of Research

  • Magnetism of surface and interfaces
  • Synchrotron Mössbauer reflectometry
  • Surface phenomena
  • X-ray and gamma-ray optics
  • Methodological problems

Mössbauer studies at St. Petersburg State University (formerly Leningrad State University) were started by G. N. Belozerskii in 1960. He wrote the first experimental paper in the USSR on the Mössbauer effect. During the early period, the main research activity of the Mössbauer group was in the field of solid-state physics: catalytic properties of Fe-based compounds, frozen solutions. In the early 1970s the group began theoretical and experimental investigations of the relaxation phenomena in superparamagnetic particles. After 1974, corrosion studies were the group's main research objects. Starting in 1986, the interest of the Mössbauer group shifted to depth selective surface and multilayers studies with grazing incidence Mössbauer spectroscopy. Experimental and theoretical investigations are performed in close cooperation with S. M. Irkaev (Institute of Analytical Instrumentation, St. Petersburg) and M. A. Andreeva (Moscow State University). Samples for investigation are received from collaborators from the Institute for Physics of Microstructures of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Department of Physics of Uppsala University. The group’s current research focus is analytical application of Mössbauer spectroscopy in combination with other physics methods for the nondestructive depth selective diagnostics of the near surface layers. As for teaching activity, the group gives lectures for students of the Chemical Department of the University.

Group of Investigations of Nuclear After-Effects
Department of Radiochemistry

Names and Titles of Researchers

Group Leader – I. E. Alekseev
Technical Problems of Mössbauer Experiments – A. K. Avenirov
Post-Graduate Student – D. E. Maslennikov

Areas of Research

  • The study of structure and processes of migration of impurity radiation damages (impurity "hot" atoms) formed in metals as a result of transformation of nuclei due to nuclear reactions caused by charged particles (p, d, 4He, 12C, 14N, 16O), neutrons or owing to radioactive changes
  • The study of the irradiated metals (and alloys) with a different nuclear prehistory

Scientific investigations run in cooperation with the Cyclotron Laboratory, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia (Chief of Laboratory – V. V. Lazarev); the Department of Neutron Investigations, Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, Gatchina, Russia (Coordinator of Works – S. P. Orlov); and the Central Research Institute of Structural Materials "Prometey", St. Petersburg, Russia (Coordinator of Works – V. V. Darmograi). The basic results of investigations over the last 10 years are reflected in more than 70 scientific publications.

a Group of Mössbauer Spectroscopy
Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics

b Laboratory of Oxidation Catalysis over Zeolites
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis

Names and Titles of Researchers

Group Leader, Head of Laboratory – Dr.Sc., Prof. Gennady I. Panovb
Dr. K. A. Dubkovb
Dr. E. V. Starokonb
Dr. L. V. Piryutkob
Dr. N. S. Ovanesyana
Dr.Sc. A. A. Shteinmana

Areas of Research

  • Fe-containing zeolites
  • Surface Fe-complexes
  • Heterogeneous catalysis
  • Benzene to phenol oxidation
  • Nitrous oxide (N2O) decomposition

The main goal of research conducted by the group is to clarify the nature of active sites and the state of active iron responsible for catalysis over Fe-containing ZSM-5 zeolites, which are the best catalysts in the direct oxidation of benzene to phenol by nitrous oxide (N2O) and provide nearly 100% selectivity.

By means of Mössbauer spectroscopy for the first time it was possible to investigate the evolution of iron states in FeZSM-5 zeolite upon its high-temperature activation (calcination in vacuum or in steam). Activation process was shown to cause an intensive reduction of iron yielding two types of dinuclear Fe2+ complexes [Dubkov K.A., Ovanesyan N.S., Shteinman A.A., Starokon E.V., Panov G.I., J. Catal. 207 (2002), 341-352].

A thorough quantitative comparison between the amount of various iron species in the zeolite and its catalytic properties allowed the group to obtain a pronounced correlation between the concentration of the reduced Fe2+ species and concentration of active sites (so-called a-sites) [Dubkov K.A., et al., ibid]. The linear dependence clearly shows that these Fe2+ complexes are responsible for catalytic properties of the zeolite.

Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute
Russian Academy of Sciences
St. Petersburg

Names and Titles of Researchers
"Basic Properties of Magnetic Materials"

Head of Group – Prof. Dr.Sc. A. S. Kamzin
Visiting Scientist – Prof. S. I. Yschuk
Dr. L. A. Grigor’ev
Dr. L. P. Ol’khovik
Post-Graduate Student – Yu. N. Mal’tsev (currently in Germany)
Post-Graduate Student – L. A. Grigor’ev
Post-Graduate Student – V. L. Rozenbaum (currently in USA)
Post-Graduate Student – D. B. Vcherashnii
Student – P. Gliantsev (every year two diploma students)

Application of the Mössbauer effect for the study of magnetics and ferroelectricity was started in the Department of Magnetism and Ferroelectricity in 1968 by Chief of the Department G. A. Smoleskii, of the group headed by Prof. V. A. Bokov. In 1972 the Institute of Semiconductors of the USSR Academy of Sciences was integrated with the A. F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Using Mössbauer spectroscopy, the Lab has studied different properties of magnetic materials. Since 1980 Prof. A. S. Kamzin has headed the Mössbauer spectroscopy group, and the Lab began applying the Mössbauer effect to the study of magnetic phenomena on the surface of crystals. In 1988 Mössbauer spectroscopy was combined in transmission gamma-ray geometry and backscattering conversion electrons and conversion X-rays in backscattering geometry targeting simultaneous investigation of surface and bulk magnetic properties. That idea was realized in a unique Mössbauer system, the design of which contained original solutions. By using that equipment, the Lab has shown that new methods have preferences, and this new method was dubbed by Prof. U. Gonser as "Simultaneous Triple Radiation Mössbauer Spectroscopy" (STRMS).

With the help of this original method and equipment, it became possible to investigate processes simultaneously on the surface and in the bulk of crystals at the phase transitions, at the Curie or Neel points, as well as at the spin-reorientation phase transitions in the bulk of crystal. Changes of the bulk magnetic properties of crystals in direction to the surface were studied. It has been demonstrated by theoretical analysis that the experimental results obtained by the new method are of crucial importance for understanding fundamental magnetic properties.

Other directions of research include:

  • Magnetic properties of materials for ultrahigh density magnetic recording devices
  • Nanocrystals of Ba-hexagonal ferrites
  • Nanocrystalline Fe-M-N thin films, where M = Al, Ta, on other metals
  • Ba-hexagonal ferrites thin films

Laboratory of Mössbauer Spectrometry
Faculty of Experimental Physics
Physico-Technical Department
Urals State Technical University

Names and Titles of Researchers

Leading Researcher – Dr. V. A. Semionkin, Head of Laboratory

Leading Researcher – D.Sc. M. I. Oshtrakh, Head of Biophysical and Biomedical Studies (Division of Applied Biophysics, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Physico-Technical Department, Ural State Technical University)

Associate Professor – Dr. O. B. Milder

Associate Professor –Dr. Yu. N. Sekisov (Radio-Technical Department, Ural State Technical University)

Ph.D. Student – E. G. Novikov

Ph.D. Student – A.I. Pikulev

L-R: A. I. Pikulev, Dr. V. A. Semionkin, Dr. Yu. N. Sekisov (standing), E. G. Novikov, Dr. M. I. Oshtrakh, Dr. O. B. Milder (sitting)

Areas of Research

  • Technical Development (Doppler modulation development to increase the resolution of Mössbauer spectrometry)
  • Biomedical Applications
  • Biophysical Applications
  • Iron Alloys
  • Archeological Application
  • Mineralogy
  • Meteorites
  • Study of the effect of radiation on biological molecules, the effect of ions and neutron beams, electric field on iron alloys and archeological subjects

The Laboratory was established in 1969 at the Division of Radiation Material Science, Physico-Technical Department, Ural Polytechnical Institute (now the Urals State Technical University). Further, the Division was renamed as the Division of Applied Biophysics and then included into the Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control. In 1982, the Laboratory was re-placed in the Faculty of Experimental Physics. More than 90 papers and 17 patents have been published since 1969.

Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute

There are several groups in the Kurchatov Institute that contribute to the development of Mössbauer spectroscopy. Those that contributed reports are briefly described below.

Laboratory of Gamma Resonance Spectroscopy
Institute of Nuclear and General Physics
Department of Nuclear Problems

Names and Titles of Researchers

Chief of the Laboratory – Prof. Dr.Sc. G. V. Smirnov

Areas of Research/Contributions

  • Development of a new domain: experimental gamma-ray optics
  • First observation of pure nuclear diffraction of gamma rays in crystals
  • Elaboration of synchrotron Mössbauer source
  • Observation and comprehensive studies of the effect of suppression of inelastic channels
  • Observation of energy-dependent Pendellösung effect
  • Observation and investigation of nuclear gamma exciton
  • Development of the theory of nuclear resonant coherent and incoherent scattering a) in the presence of diffusive motion of nuclei, and b) under influence of ultrasound.

Recent research has focused on the study of quasielastic scattering by Mössbauer time domain interferometry.

Laboratory of Elementary Processes
Institute of Nuclear and General Physics
Department of Nuclear Problems

Names and Titles of Researchers

Leading Scientific Worker – Prof. V. G. Tsinoev
Senior Scientific Worker – Dr. V. M. Cherepanov
Scientific Worker – I. V. Morozov

Areas of Research

  • P, T, CP – parity non-conservation in nuclear Mössbauer transitions; experimental studies of the parity non-conservation using 197Au, 161Dy, 119Sn, 57Fe, 237Np nuclear transitions

Recent research has focused on testing T-invariance by means of the Mössbauer transition in 171Yb. It was found that time parity conserved with an accuracy of 7◊10-5 (to be published).

Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography
Russian Academy of Sciences

Names and Titles of Researchers

Head of Laboratory – Prof. I. S. Lyubutin

Dr. T. V. Dmitrieva (magnetic materials, diamagnetic nuclei probes)

Dr. V. G. Terziev (HTSC materials)

Dr. V. A. Sarkisyan (Mössbauer methodic, radio-frequency modulation of Mössbauer radiation, high pressure studies, synchrotron X-ray measurements)

Dr. A. G. Gavriliuk (high pressure Mössbauer, NFS-synchrotron and X-ray measurements)

Dr. I. A. Trojan (high pressure NFS-synchrotron and optical measurements)

Dr. N. S. Ovanesyan (low-dimensional magnetic systems, diamagnetic nuclei probes)

Dr. V. V. Yakovlev (magnetic spinel structures)

Ph.D. Student – K. V. Frolov (HTSC materials, quasicrystals)

O. N. Morozov (low temperature measurements)

L-R: V. I. Bobrov, V. G. Terziev, T. M. Dymenko, O. N. Morozov, T. V. Dmitrieva, T. A. Khimich, I. S. Lyubutin, L. A. Popkova, K. V. Frolov, V. V. Yakovlev and A. S. Stepin

Prof. V. S. Pokatilov (Mössbauer and NMR in magnetic materials)

Dr. T. A. Khimich (Mössbauer and NMR spin-echo technique in magnetic materials)

Dr. E. N. Morozova (NMR in magnetic ferroelectrics)

A. S. Stepin (neutron diffraction, heavy-fermions systems)

Areas of Research

  • Magnetic interactions and magnetic structures in materials with different crystal structures
  • High pressure Mössbauer spectroscopy in diamond anvil cells
  • Nuclear forward scattering of synchrotron radiation at high pressures
  • High pressure X-ray, optical absorption, Raman scattering, and electroresistivity measurements
  • Diamagnetic nuclei probes in magnetic materials (by both Mössbauer and NMR methods)
  • High temperature superconductors (HTSC)
  • Quasicrystals
  • CMR (colossal magneto-resistance) materials in the systems based on LaMnO3 and FeCr2S4
  • Magnetic ferroelectrics

The A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ICRAS) is one of first places in the USSR where the Mössbauer effect method was developed (perhaps just after Prof. V. S. Shpinel's group at Moscow University and V. I. Gol'danskii's group in the Institute of Chemical Physics). The work was begun at the Institute in 1962 by Igor Lyubutin, who was a Ph.D. student at that time. Currently, Prof. I. S. Lyubutin's laboratory in ICRAS is called the Laboratory of Resonance Methods, and besides the Mössbauer group it includes the NMR/NQR group and the neutron diffraction and synchrotron radiation groups. Over 22 researchers are now working in the laboratory, including those listed above.

Most recent research efforts are related to high-pressure Mössbauer spectroscopy. The technique of high-pressure diamond anvil cells (up to 1.5 Megabar) has been developed for measurements of microscopic-size crystals. New types of magnetic, electronic, structural and spin transformations induced by high pressures have been found recently in magnetic oxides.

Mössbauer Group
Laboratory of Surface Physics and Microelectronic Devices
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
Russian Academy of Sciences

Names and Titles of Researchers

Prof. A. M. Afanas'ev
Dr. M. A. Chuev
Post-Graduate Student N. P. Aksenova

Areas of Research

  • Nanocrystalline magnetic materials
  • Magnetic relaxation effects
  • Evaluation methods for spectral analysis
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy under rf field excitation

Latest Results

The group has developed an alternative approach for the solution of ill-posed problems, which allows one to find spectral models with the maximum possible number of lines and has been called the DISCVER ("Discrete Versions of Mössbauer Spectra") method. The group has applied this method for the treatment of a number of Mössbauer spectra of different types, in particular of complex 57Fe Mössbauer spectra of the nanostructured Fe86-xCu1NbxB13 alloys in collaboration with the laboratory of Prof. J. Hesse at Braunschweig University in Germany.

The group has performed a generalization of the conventional two-level relaxation model for a system of fine single-domain particles, taking into account the inter-particle interaction. This model has been successfully applied in analyzing the Mössbauer spectra of the nano-structured ferromagnetic alloys.

The group has essentially extended the theoretical basis of Mössbauer spectroscopy under rf field excitation proved. Facilities of the method should be strongly enhanced within their prediction of a new type of resonant phenomena: relaxation-stimulated resonances revealed in the Mössbauer spectra of nanocrystalline magnetic materials in an rf magnetic field.

Recently, they have studied the effect of rotation of the single-domain particle’s magnetic moment in the magnetic anisotropy field on the Mössbauer spectra of hyperfine structure and found that, due to rotation, there occurs a renormalization of the nuclear g-factors, which results in a qualitative transformation of Mössbauer absorption spectra. In particular, along with conventional 57Fe magnetic sextet, partial spectra consisting of 'magnetic' quintuplet, quartet, triplet, and even doublet of lines can be formed. This peculiarity in forming the spectra of magnetic hyperfine structure should be taken into account in analyzing the Mössbauer spectra of materials with nano-sized magnetic particles.

Mössbauer Group
Institute of Solid State Physics
Russian Academy of Sciences

Names and Titles of Researchers

Dr. V. Sedykh – Mössbauer studies
Prof. V. Sh. Shekhtman – X-ray Diffraction Analysis
Prof. E. V. Suvorov – Electron microscopy
Dr. A. V. Dubovitskii – Synthesis and Crystal Growth

Areas of Research

  • Study of structure modulation in single crystals of Bi-ferrites (isostructural with Bi-cuprates) depending on the cation substitution (Bi2Sr2CaFe2Ox, Bi2Sr3Fe2Ox, Bi2-yPbySr3Fe2Ox), change in oxygen subsystem, introduction and removal of layers from the lattice (Bi2Sr4Fe2Ox, Bi2Sr2FeOx)

  • Structural phase transitions in lanthanum manganite LaMnO3+δ

  • Study of nanocrystallization of amorphous CoSiBFeNb alloys

Laboratory of Mössbauer Investigations/Nuclear Gamma Resonance Laboratory
Department of Applied Nuclear Physics
Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University)

Names of Researchers

Prof. V. P. Filippov
Dr. A. B. Bateev
Engineer Yu. Yu. Ivanov
Engineer R. N. Pugachev
Postgraduate student Yu. A. Shikanova

Areas of Research

  • Application of the Mössbauer method to investigations of zirconium alloys, oxides of zirconium alloys and steels, corrosion

The Laboratory of Mössbauer Investigations was organized in 1964, and has installations which allow it to carry out investigations in transmission geometry, scattering geometry with registration γ-rays and X-rays (6.3 keV) and CEMS. The investigations deal with zirconium alloys, corrosion of zirconium alloys, steels, detection of molecular states of aggressive gasses.

Scientific achievements obtained at the Lab include the development of a new method of phase determination of zirconium oxides and alloys, from the point of view of the presence of iron and tin compounds, sensitivity is 0.02% mass, and up to six phases can simultaneously be determined. The following items have been established: the presence of intermetallic Zr2Fe, the phenomenon of metal particles (α-Fe and β-Sn) precipitates formation in ZrO2 (it was found that particles of iron metal can be in the form of nanoparticles and they can have the high-temperature phase state), interaction between corrosion resistance of zirconium alloys and redistribution of Fe and Sn atoms in oxide films, and influence of iron addition into zirconium alloys.

The group plans to study the influence of thermomechanical treatment on the α Fe and Sn atom states in NSF, Zyrcalloy-2, E-635 alloys, which are prepared industrially with natural Fe and Sn isotopes enrichment. The group plans to study changes of Fe and Sn atom state in zirconium alloys irradiated in fast neutron reactors, and to improve techniques of experiments and processing of Mössbauer spectra.

Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics
Russian Academy of Sciences

Names and Titles of Researchers

Group Leader – Prof. V. A. Belyakov (L.D.Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics)
Prof. Yu. M. Aivazian (All-Russian Research Institute of Physical-Technical and Radiotechnical Measurements)
Dr. S. V. Semenov (Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute)

Areas of Research

  • Theory of Mössbauer gamma optics in transmission and scattering geometries applied to determination of the crystalline and magnetic structures of crystals, in particular, by means of the pure nuclear reflections

  • Theory of elastic and inelastic Mössbauer scattering of synchrotron radiation aimed to facilitate experimental observation of fine solid state effects, such as the density of phonon states, and to create a frequency standard in the gamma-ray frequency range

The theoretical scientific group was formed in the beginning of the 1970s in the All-Union Research Institute of Physical-Technical and Radiotechnical Measurements (Moscow). Since that time, approximately 20 articles and two monographs have been published by members of the group.

Mössbauer Gamma Optics Group
Department of Electronics and Automatics
Kazan State Power Engineering University

Names and Titles of Researchers

Group Leader – Dr. E.A. Popov
Dr. E. A. Yanvarev
Dr. V. V. Kosulin,
Dr. S. M. Kutsenko

Areas of Research

  • The effects of quantum interference in nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation induced by both external and intrinsic perturbations

  • Nuclear superfluorescence effects

  • Amplification of gamma radiation without inversion and electromagnetic induced transparency in gamma optics

The scientific group Mössbauer Gamma Optics was organized in 1996. Up to the present more than 30 articles have been published by members of the group. The group is open for contact with other groups and single scientists.

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